130th Ohio General Assembly
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Am. H. B. No. 349  As Enrolled
(129th General Assembly)
(Amended House Bill Number 349)



AN ACT
To amend sections 3781.111, 4510.31, 4511.01, 4511.041, 4511.09, 4511.102, 4511.103, 4511.105, 4511.106, 4511.11, 4511.13, 4511.131, 4511.14, 4511.37, 4511.69, and 4955.33 and to repeal section 4511.15 of the Revised Code to make changes in certain provisions relating to road signs and traffic signals for purposes of the Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices.

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio:

SECTION 1.  That sections 3781.111, 4510.31, 4511.01, 4511.041, 4511.09, 4511.102, 4511.103, 4511.105, 4511.106, 4511.11, 4511.13, 4511.131, 4511.14, 4511.37, 4511.69, and 4955.33 of the Revised Code be amended to read as follows:

Sec. 3781.111.  (A) In addition to the powers conferred by any other section of the Revised Code, the board of building standards shall adopt standards and rules to facilitate the reasonable access and use by all persons with a disability of all buildings and the facilities of buildings for which plans are submitted for approval under section 3791.04 of the Revised Code. No standard or rule shall be applied to any building the plans or drawings, specifications, and date of which have been approved prior to the time that the standard or rule takes effect.

(B)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the standards and rules adopted by the board pursuant to this section shall be in accordance with the "Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990," 104 Stat. 327, 42 U.S.C.A. 12101, as amended, and the "Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988," 102 Stat. 1619, 42 U.S.C.A. 3601, as amended.

(2) For purposes of enforcement by the Ohio civil rights commission only, approval of a plan as required under section 3791.04 of the Revised Code creates a rebuttable presumption that the plans, drawings, specifications, or data submitted are in compliance with the rules adopted by the board pursuant to this section as they relate to accessibility.

(C) All signs posted to designate special parking locations for persons with a disability and persons with disabilities that limit or impair the ability to walk in accordance with division (E) of section 4511.69 of the Revised Code and the standards and rules adopted pursuant to this section shall be mounted on a fixed or movable post or otherwise affixed in a vertical position at a height so that the distance from the ground to the bottom edge of the sign is clearly visible to the driver of a vehicle when parked in such a location measures not less than five feet. If a new sign or a replacement sign designating a special parking location is posted on or after October 14, 1999, there also shall be affixed upon the surface of that sign or affixed next to the designating sign a notice that states the fine applicable for the offense of parking a motor vehicle in the special designated parking location if the motor vehicle is not legally entitled to be parked in that location.

(D) As used in this section, "disability" has the same meaning as in section 4112.01 of the Revised Code. As used in division (C) of this section, "persons with disabilities that limit or impair the ability to walk" has the same meaning as in division (A)(1) of section 4503.44 of the Revised Code.

(E) No owner of a building or facility where special parking locations for persons with a disability must be designated in accordance with the standards and rules adopted pursuant to this section shall fail to properly mark the special parking locations as required by those standards and rules or fail to maintain the markings of the special parking locations, including the erection and maintenance of the fixed or movable signs.

(F) The board annually shall provide statewide training on the rules adopted by the board pursuant to this section as they relate to accessibility for nonresidential building department personnel certified by the board who approve, review plans, and inspect nonresidential construction.

Sec. 4510.31.  (A)(1) Except as provided in division (C) of this section, the registrar of motor vehicles shall suspend the probationary driver's license, restricted license, or temporary instruction permit issued to any person when the person has been convicted of, pleaded guilty to, or been adjudicated in juvenile court of having committed, prior to the person's eighteenth birthday, any of the following:

(a) Three separate violations of section 2903.06, 2903.08, 2921.331, 4511.12, 4511.13, 4511.15, 4511.191, 4511.20, 4511.201, 4511.202, 4511.21, 4511.22, 4511.23, 4511.25 to 4511.48, 4511.57 to 4511.65, 4511.75, 4549.02, 4549.021, or 4549.03 of the Revised Code, section 4510.14 of the Revised Code involving a suspension imposed under section 4511.191 or 4511.196 of the Revised Code, section 2903.04 of the Revised Code in a case in which the person would have been subject to the sanctions described in division (D) of that section had the person been convicted of the violation of that section, former section 2903.07 of the Revised Code, or any municipal ordinances similarly relating to the offenses referred to in those sections;

(b) One violation of section 4511.19 of the Revised Code or a substantially similar municipal ordinance;

(c) Two separate violations of any of the Revised Code sections referred to in division (A)(1)(a) of this section, or any municipal ordinance that is substantially similar to any of those sections.

(2) Any person whose license or permit is suspended under division (A)(1)(a), (b), or (c) of this section shall mail or deliver the person's probationary driver's license, restricted license, or temporary instruction permit to the registrar within fourteen days of notification of the suspension. The registrar shall retain the license or permit during the period of the suspension. A suspension pursuant to division (A)(1)(a) of this section shall be a class C suspension, a suspension pursuant to division (A)(1)(b) of this section shall be a class D suspension, and a suspension pursuant to division (A)(1)(c) of this section shall be a class E suspension, all for the periods of time specified in division (B) of section 4510.02 of the Revised Code. If the person's probationary driver's license, restricted license, or temporary instruction permit is under suspension on the date the court imposes sentence upon the person for a violation described in division (A)(1)(b) of this section, the suspension shall take effect on the next day immediately following the end of that period of suspension. If the person is sixteen years of age or older and pleads guilty to or is convicted of a violation described in division (A)(1)(b) of this section and the person does not have a current, valid probationary driver's license, restricted license, or temporary instruction permit, the registrar shall deny the issuance to the person of a probationary driver's license, restricted license, driver's license, commercial driver's license, or temporary instruction permit, as the case may be, for six months beginning on the date the court imposes sentence upon the person for the violation. If the person has not attained the age of sixteen years on the date the court imposes sentence upon the person for the violation, the period of denial shall commence on the date the person attains the age of sixteen years.

(3) The registrar shall suspend the person's license or permit under division (A) of this section regardless of whether the disposition of the case in juvenile court occurred after the person's eighteenth birthday.

(B) The registrar also shall impose a class D suspension for the period of time specified in division (B)(4) of section 4510.02 of the Revised Code of the temporary instruction permit or probationary driver's license of any person under the age of eighteen who has been adjudicated an unruly child, delinquent child, or juvenile traffic offender for having committed any act that if committed by an adult would be a drug abuse offense or a violation of division (B) of section 2917.11 of the Revised Code. The registrar, in the registrar's discretion, may terminate the suspension if the child, at the discretion of the court, attends and satisfactorily completes a drug abuse or alcohol abuse education, intervention, or treatment program specified by the court. Any person whose temporary instruction permit or probationary driver's license is suspended under this division shall mail or deliver the person's permit or license to the registrar within fourteen days of notification of the suspension. The registrar shall retain the permit or license during the period of the suspension.

(C)(1) Except as provided in division (C)(3) of this section, for any person who is convicted of, pleads guilty to, or is adjudicated in juvenile court of having committed a second or third violation of section 4511.12, 4511.13, 4511.15, 4511.20 to 4511.23, 4511.25, 4511.26 to 4511.48, 4511.57 to 4511.65, or 4511.75 of the Revised Code or any similar municipal ordinances and whose license or permit is suspended under division (A)(1)(a) or (c) of this section, the court in which the second or third conviction, finding, plea, or adjudication resulting in the suspension was made, upon petition of the person, may grant the person limited driving privileges during the period during which the suspension otherwise would be imposed under division (A)(1)(a) or (c) of this section if the court finds reasonable cause to believe that the suspension will seriously affect the person's ability to continue in employment, educational training, vocational training, or treatment. In granting the limited driving privileges, the court shall specify the purposes, times, and places of the privileges and may impose any other conditions upon the person's driving a motor vehicle that the court considers reasonable and necessary.

A court that grants limited driving privileges to a person under this division shall retain the person's probationary driver's license, restricted license, or temporary instruction permit during the period the license or permit is suspended and also during the period for which limited driving privileges are granted, and shall deliver to the person a permit card, in a form to be prescribed by the court, setting forth the date on which the limited driving privileges will become effective, the purposes for which the person may drive, the times and places at which the person may drive, and any other conditions imposed upon the person's use of a motor vehicle.

The court immediately shall notify the registrar, in writing, of a grant of limited driving privileges under this division. The notification shall specify the date on which the limited driving privileges will become effective, the purposes for which the person may drive, the times and places at which the person may drive, and any other conditions imposed upon the person's use of a motor vehicle. The registrar shall not suspend the probationary driver's license, restricted license, or temporary instruction permit of any person pursuant to division (A) of this section during any period for which the person has been granted limited driving privileges as provided in this division, if the registrar has received the notification described in this division from the court.

(2) Except as provided in division (C)(3) of this section, in any case in which the temporary instruction permit or probationary driver's license of a person under eighteen years of age has been suspended under division (A) or (B) of this section or any other provision of law, the court may grant the person limited driving privileges for the purpose of the person's practicing of driving with the person's parent, guardian, or other custodian during the period of the suspension. Any grant of limited driving privileges under this division shall comply with division (D) of section 4510.021 of the Revised Code.

(3) A court shall not grant limited driving privileges to a person identified in division (C)(1) or (2) of this section if the person, within the preceding six years, has been convicted of, pleaded guilty to, or adjudicated in juvenile court of having committed three or more violations of one or more of the divisions or sections set forth in divisions (G)(2)(b) to (g) of section 2919.22 of the Revised Code.

(D) If a person who has been granted limited driving privileges under division (C) of this section is convicted of, pleads guilty to, or is adjudicated in juvenile court of having committed, a violation of Chapter 4510. of the Revised Code, or a subsequent violation of any of the sections of the Revised Code listed in division (A)(1)(a) of this section or any similar municipal ordinance during the period for which the person was granted limited driving privileges, the court that granted the limited driving privileges shall suspend the person's permit card. The court or the clerk of the court immediately shall forward the person's probationary driver's license, restricted license, or temporary instruction permit together with written notification of the court's action to the registrar. Upon receipt of the license or permit and notification, the registrar shall impose a class C suspension of the person's probationary driver's license, restricted license, or temporary instruction permit for the period of time specified in division (B)(3) of section 4510.02 of the Revised Code. The registrar shall retain the license or permit during the period of suspension, and no further limited driving privileges shall be granted during that period.

(E) No application for a driver's or commercial driver's license shall be received from any person whose probationary driver's license, restricted license, or temporary instruction permit has been suspended under this section until each of the following has occurred:

(1) The suspension period has expired;

(2) A temporary instruction permit or commercial driver's license temporary instruction permit has been issued;

(3) The person successfully completes a juvenile driver improvement program approved by the registrar under section 4510.311 of the Revised Code;

(4) The applicant has submitted to the examination for a driver's license as provided for in section 4507.11 or a commercial driver's license as provided in Chapter 4506. of the Revised Code.

Sec. 4511.01.  As used in this chapter and in Chapter 4513. of the Revised Code:

(A) "Vehicle" means every device, including a motorized bicycle, in, upon, or by which any person or property may be transported or drawn upon a highway, except that "vehicle" does not include any motorized wheelchair, any electric personal assistive mobility device, any device that is moved by power collected from overhead electric trolley wires or that is used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks, or any device, other than a bicycle, that is moved by human power.

(B) "Motor vehicle" means every vehicle propelled or drawn by power other than muscular power or power collected from overhead electric trolley wires, except motorized bicycles, road rollers, traction engines, power shovels, power cranes, and other equipment used in construction work and not designed for or employed in general highway transportation, hole-digging machinery, well-drilling machinery, ditch-digging machinery, farm machinery, and trailers designed and used exclusively to transport a boat between a place of storage and a marina, or in and around a marina, when drawn or towed on a street or highway for a distance of no more than ten miles and at a speed of twenty-five miles per hour or less.

(C) "Motorcycle" means every motor vehicle, other than a tractor, having a seat or saddle for the use of the operator and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, including, but not limited to, motor vehicles known as "motor-driven cycle," "motor scooter," or "motorcycle" without regard to weight or brake horsepower.

(D) "Emergency vehicle" means emergency vehicles of municipal, township, or county departments or public utility corporations when identified as such as required by law, the director of public safety, or local authorities, and motor vehicles when commandeered by a police officer.

(E) "Public safety vehicle" means any of the following:

(1) Ambulances, including private ambulance companies under contract to a municipal corporation, township, or county, and private ambulances and nontransport vehicles bearing license plates issued under section 4503.49 of the Revised Code;

(2) Motor vehicles used by public law enforcement officers or other persons sworn to enforce the criminal and traffic laws of the state;

(3) Any motor vehicle when properly identified as required by the director of public safety, when used in response to fire emergency calls or to provide emergency medical service to ill or injured persons, and when operated by a duly qualified person who is a member of a volunteer rescue service or a volunteer fire department, and who is on duty pursuant to the rules or directives of that service. The state fire marshal shall be designated by the director of public safety as the certifying agency for all public safety vehicles described in division (E)(3) of this section.

(4) Vehicles used by fire departments, including motor vehicles when used by volunteer fire fighters responding to emergency calls in the fire department service when identified as required by the director of public safety.

Any vehicle used to transport or provide emergency medical service to an ill or injured person, when certified as a public safety vehicle, shall be considered a public safety vehicle when transporting an ill or injured person to a hospital regardless of whether such vehicle has already passed a hospital.

(5) Vehicles used by the motor carrier enforcement unit for the enforcement of orders and rules of the public utilities commission as specified in section 5503.34 of the Revised Code.

(F) "School bus" means every bus designed for carrying more than nine passengers that is owned by a public, private, or governmental agency or institution of learning and operated for the transportation of children to or from a school session or a school function, or owned by a private person and operated for compensation for the transportation of children to or from a school session or a school function, provided "school bus" does not include a bus operated by a municipally owned transportation system, a mass transit company operating exclusively within the territorial limits of a municipal corporation, or within such limits and the territorial limits of municipal corporations immediately contiguous to such municipal corporation, nor a common passenger carrier certified by the public utilities commission unless such bus is devoted exclusively to the transportation of children to and from a school session or a school function, and "school bus" does not include a van or bus used by a licensed child day-care center or type A family day-care home to transport children from the child day-care center or type A family day-care home to a school if the van or bus does not have more than fifteen children in the van or bus at any time.

(G) "Bicycle" means every device, other than a tricycle designed solely for use as a play vehicle by a child, propelled solely by human power upon which any person may ride having two tandem wheels, or one wheel in the front and two wheels in the rear, or two wheels in the front and one wheel in the rear, any of which is more than fourteen inches in diameter.

(H) "Motorized bicycle" means any vehicle having either two tandem wheels or one wheel in the front and two wheels in the rear, that is capable of being pedaled and is equipped with a helper motor of not more than fifty cubic centimeters piston displacement that produces no more than one brake horsepower and is capable of propelling the vehicle at a speed of no greater than twenty miles per hour on a level surface.

(I) "Commercial tractor" means every motor vehicle having motive power designed or used for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry any load thereon, or designed or used for drawing other vehicles while carrying a portion of such other vehicles, or load thereon, or both.

(J) "Agricultural tractor" means every self-propelling vehicle designed or used for drawing other vehicles or wheeled machinery but having no provision for carrying loads independently of such other vehicles, and used principally for agricultural purposes.

(K) "Truck" means every motor vehicle, except trailers and semitrailers, designed and used to carry property.

(L) "Bus" means every motor vehicle designed for carrying more than nine passengers and used for the transportation of persons other than in a ridesharing arrangement, and every motor vehicle, automobile for hire, or funeral car, other than a taxicab or motor vehicle used in a ridesharing arrangement, designed and used for the transportation of persons for compensation.

(M) "Trailer" means every vehicle designed or used for carrying persons or property wholly on its own structure and for being drawn by a motor vehicle, including any such vehicle when formed by or operated as a combination of a "semitrailer" and a vehicle of the dolly type, such as that commonly known as a "trailer dolly," a vehicle used to transport agricultural produce or agricultural production materials between a local place of storage or supply and the farm when drawn or towed on a street or highway at a speed greater than twenty-five miles per hour, and a vehicle designed and used exclusively to transport a boat between a place of storage and a marina, or in and around a marina, when drawn or towed on a street or highway for a distance of more than ten miles or at a speed of more than twenty-five miles per hour.

(N) "Semitrailer" means every vehicle designed or used for carrying persons or property with another and separate motor vehicle so that in operation a part of its own weight or that of its load, or both, rests upon and is carried by another vehicle.

(O) "Pole trailer" means every trailer or semitrailer attached to the towing vehicle by means of a reach, pole, or by being boomed or otherwise secured to the towing vehicle, and ordinarily used for transporting long or irregular shaped loads such as poles, pipes, or structural members capable, generally, of sustaining themselves as beams between the supporting connections.

(P) "Railroad" means a carrier of persons or property operating upon rails placed principally on a private right-of-way.

(Q) "Railroad train" means a steam engine or an electric or other motor, with or without cars coupled thereto, operated by a railroad.

(R) "Streetcar" means a car, other than a railroad train, for transporting persons or property, operated upon rails principally within a street or highway.

(S) "Trackless trolley" means every car that collects its power from overhead electric trolley wires and that is not operated upon rails or tracks.

(T) "Explosives" means any chemical compound or mechanical mixture that is intended for the purpose of producing an explosion that contains any oxidizing and combustible units or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities, or packing that an ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, or by a detonator of any part of the compound or mixture may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated gases that the resultant gaseous pressures are capable of producing destructive effects on contiguous objects, or of destroying life or limb. Manufactured articles shall not be held to be explosives when the individual units contain explosives in such limited quantities, of such nature, or in such packing, that it is impossible to procure a simultaneous or a destructive explosion of such units, to the injury of life, limb, or property by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, or by a detonator, such as fixed ammunition for small arms, firecrackers, or safety fuse matches.

(U) "Flammable liquid" means any liquid that has a flash point of seventy degrees fahrenheit, or less, as determined by a tagliabue or equivalent closed cup test device.

(V) "Gross weight" means the weight of a vehicle plus the weight of any load thereon.

(W) "Person" means every natural person, firm, co-partnership, association, or corporation.

(X) "Pedestrian" means any natural person afoot.

(Y) "Driver or operator" means every person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle, trackless trolley, or streetcar.

(Z) "Police officer" means every officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic, or to make arrests for violations of traffic regulations.

(AA) "Local authorities" means every county, municipal, and other local board or body having authority to adopt police regulations under the constitution and laws of this state.

(BB) "Street" or "highway" means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way open to the use of the public as a thoroughfare for purposes of vehicular travel.

(CC) "Controlled-access highway" means every street or highway in respect to which owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no legal right of access to or from the same except at such points only and in such manner as may be determined by the public authority having jurisdiction over such street or highway.

(DD) "Private road or driveway" means every way or place in private ownership used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner but not by other persons.

(EE) "Roadway" means that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, except the berm or shoulder. If a highway includes two or more separate roadways the term "roadway" means any such roadway separately but not all such roadways collectively.

(FF) "Sidewalk" means that portion of a street between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines, intended for the use of pedestrians.

(GG) "Laned highway" means a highway the roadway of which is divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.

(HH) "Through highway" means every street or highway as provided in section 4511.65 of the Revised Code.

(II) "State highway" means a highway under the jurisdiction of the department of transportation, outside the limits of municipal corporations, provided that the authority conferred upon the director of transportation in section 5511.01 of the Revised Code to erect state highway route markers and signs directing traffic shall not be modified by sections 4511.01 to 4511.79 and 4511.99 of the Revised Code.

(JJ) "State route" means every highway that is designated with an official state route number and so marked.

(KK) "Intersection" means:

(1) The area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which that join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining that join at any other angle may might come in into conflict. The junction of an alley or driveway with a roadway or highway does not constitute an intersection unless the roadway or highway at the junction is controlled by a traffic control device.

(2) Where If a highway includes two roadways that are thirty feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as constitutes a separate intersection. If an both intersecting highway also includes highways include two roadways thirty feet or more apart, then every crossing of any two roadways of such highways shall be regarded as constitutes a separate intersection.

(3) The junction of an alley with a street or highway, or with another alley, shall not constitute an intersection At a location controlled by a traffic control signal, regardless of the distance between the separate intersections as described in division (KK)(2) of this section:

(a) If a stop line, yield line, or crosswalk has not been designated on the roadway within the median between the separate intersections, the two intersections and the roadway and median constitute one intersection.

(b) Where a stop line, yield line, or crosswalk line is designated on the roadway on the intersection approach, the area within the crosswalk and any area beyond the designated stop line or yield line constitute part of the intersection.

(c) Where a crosswalk is designated on a roadway on the departure from the intersection, the intersection includes the area that extends to the far side of the crosswalk.

(LL) "Crosswalk" means:

(1) That part of a roadway at intersections ordinarily included within the real or projected prolongation of property lines and curb lines or, in the absence of curbs, the edges of the traversable roadway;

(2) Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere, distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface;

(3) Notwithstanding divisions (LL)(1) and (2) of this section, there shall not be a crosswalk where local authorities have placed signs indicating no crossing.

(MM) "Safety zone" means the area or space officially set apart within a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and protected or marked or indicated by adequate signs as to be plainly visible at all times.

(NN) "Business district" means the territory fronting upon a street or highway, including the street or highway, between successive intersections within municipal corporations where fifty per cent or more of the frontage between such successive intersections is occupied by buildings in use for business, or within or outside municipal corporations where fifty per cent or more of the frontage for a distance of three hundred feet or more is occupied by buildings in use for business, and the character of such territory is indicated by official traffic control devices.

(OO) "Residence district" means the territory, not comprising a business district, fronting on a street or highway, including the street or highway, where, for a distance of three hundred feet or more, the frontage is improved with residences or residences and buildings in use for business.

(PP) "Urban district" means the territory contiguous to and including any street or highway which is built up with structures devoted to business, industry, or dwelling houses situated at intervals of less than one hundred feet for a distance of a quarter of a mile or more, and the character of such territory is indicated by official traffic control devices.

(QQ) "Traffic control devices device" means all flaggers a flagger, signs sign, signals signal, markings marking, and devices placed or erected or other device used to regulate, warn, or guide traffic, placed on, over, or adjacent to a street, highway, private road open to public travel, pedestrian facility, or shared-use path by authority of a public body agency or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic, including signs denoting names of streets and highways or, in the case of a private road open to public travel, by authority of the private owner or private official having jurisdiction.

(RR) "Traffic control signal" means any device, whether manually, electrically, or mechanically operated, highway traffic signal by which traffic is alternately directed to stop, to proceed, to change direction, or not and permitted to change direction proceed.

(SS) "Railroad sign or signal" means any sign, signal, or device erected by authority of a public body or official or by a railroad and intended to give notice of the presence of railroad tracks or the approach of a railroad train.

(TT) "Traffic" means pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, trackless trolleys, and other devices, either singly or together, while using any highway for purposes of travel any highway or private road open to public travel.

(UU) "Right-of-way" means either of the following, as the context requires:

(1) The right of a vehicle, streetcar, trackless trolley, or pedestrian to proceed uninterruptedly in a lawful manner in the direction in which it or the individual is moving in preference to another vehicle, streetcar, trackless trolley, or pedestrian approaching from a different direction into its or the individual's path;

(2) A general term denoting land, property, or the interest therein, usually in the configuration of a strip, acquired for or devoted to transportation purposes. When used in this context, right-of-way includes the roadway, shoulders or berm, ditch, and slopes extending to the right-of-way limits under the control of the state or local authority.

(VV) "Rural mail delivery vehicle" means every vehicle used to deliver United States mail on a rural mail delivery route.

(WW) "Funeral escort vehicle" means any motor vehicle, including a funeral hearse, while used to facilitate the movement of a funeral procession.

(XX) "Alley" means a street or highway intended to provide access to the rear or side of lots or buildings in urban districts and not intended for the purpose of through vehicular traffic, and includes any street or highway that has been declared an "alley" by the legislative authority of the municipal corporation in which such street or highway is located.

(YY) "Freeway" means a divided multi-lane highway for through traffic with all crossroads separated in grade and with full control of access.

(ZZ) "Expressway" means a divided arterial highway for through traffic with full or partial control of access with an excess of fifty per cent of all crossroads separated in grade.

(AAA) "Thruway" means a through highway whose entire roadway is reserved for through traffic and on which roadway parking is prohibited.

(BBB) "Stop intersection" means any intersection at one or more entrances of which stop signs are erected.

(CCC) "Arterial street" means any United States or state numbered route, controlled access highway, or other major radial or circumferential street or highway designated by local authorities within their respective jurisdictions as part of a major arterial system of streets or highways.

(DDD) "Ridesharing arrangement" means the transportation of persons in a motor vehicle where such transportation is incidental to another purpose of a volunteer driver and includes ridesharing arrangements known as carpools, vanpools, and buspools.

(EEE) "Motorized wheelchair" means any self-propelled vehicle designed for, and used by, a handicapped person and that is incapable of a speed in excess of eight miles per hour.

(FFF) "Child day-care center" and "type A family day-care home" have the same meanings as in section 5104.01 of the Revised Code.

(GGG) "Multi-wheel agricultural tractor" means a type of agricultural tractor that has two or more wheels or tires on each side of one axle at the rear of the tractor, is designed or used for drawing other vehicles or wheeled machinery, has no provision for carrying loads independently of the drawn vehicles or machinery, and is used principally for agricultural purposes.

(HHH) "Operate" means to cause or have caused movement of a vehicle, streetcar, or trackless trolley.

(III) "Predicate motor vehicle or traffic offense" means any of the following:

(1) A violation of section 4511.03, 4511.051, 4511.12, 4511.132, 4511.16, 4511.20, 4511.201, 4511.21, 4511.211, 4511.213, 4511.22, 4511.23, 4511.25, 4511.26, 4511.27, 4511.28, 4511.29, 4511.30, 4511.31, 4511.32, 4511.33, 4511.34, 4511.35, 4511.36, 4511.37, 4511.38, 4511.39, 4511.40, 4511.41, 4511.42, 4511.43, 4511.431, 4511.432, 4511.44, 4511.441, 4511.451, 4511.452, 4511.46, 4511.47, 4511.48, 4511.481, 4511.49, 4511.50, 4511.511, 4511.53, 4511.54, 4511.55, 4511.56, 4511.57, 4511.58, 4511.59, 4511.60, 4511.61, 4511.64, 4511.66, 4511.661, 4511.68, 4511.70, 4511.701, 4511.71, 4511.711, 4511.712, 4511.713, 4511.72, 4511.73, 4511.763, 4511.771, 4511.78, or 4511.84 of the Revised Code;

(2) A violation of division (A)(2) of section 4511.17, divisions (A) to (D) of section 4511.51, or division (A) of section 4511.74 of the Revised Code;

(3) A violation of any provision of sections 4511.01 to 4511.76 of the Revised Code for which no penalty otherwise is provided in the section that contains the provision violated;

(4) A violation of a municipal ordinance that is substantially similar to any section or provision set forth or described in division (III)(1), (2), or (3) of this section.

(JJJ) "Road service vehicle" means wreckers, utility repair vehicles, and state, county, and municipal service vehicles equipped with visual signals by means of flashing, rotating, or oscillating lights.

(KKK) "Beacon" means a highway traffic signal with one or more signal sections that operate in a flashing mode.

(LLL) "Hybrid beacon" means a type of beacon that is intentionally placed in a dark mode between periods of operation where no indications are displayed and, when in operation, displays both steady and flashing traffic control signal indications.

(MMM) "Highway traffic signal" means a power-operated traffic control device by which traffic is warned or directed to take some specific action. "Highway traffic signal" does not include a power-operated sign, steadily illuminated pavement marker, warning light, or steady burning electric lamp.

(NNN) "Median" means the area between two roadways of a divided highway, measured from edge of traveled way to edge of traveled way, but excluding turn lanes. The width of a median may be different between intersections, between interchanges, and at opposite approaches of the same intersection.

(OOO) "Private road open to public travel" means a private toll road or road, including any adjacent sidewalks that generally run parallel to the road, within a shopping center, airport, sports arena, or other similar business or recreation facility that is privately owned but where the public is allowed to travel without access restrictions. "Private road open to public travel" includes a gated toll road but does not include a road within a private gated property where access is restricted at all times, a parking area, a driving aisle within a parking area, or a private grade crossing.

(PPP) "Shared-use path" means a bikeway outside the traveled way and physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier and either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent alignment. A shared-use path also may be used by pedestrians, including skaters, joggers, users of manual and motorized wheelchairs, and other authorized motorized and non-motorized users.

Sec. 4511.041.  Sections 4511.12, 4511.13, 4511.131, 4511.132, 4511.14, 4511.15, 4511.202, 4511.21, 4511.211, 4511.22, 4511.23, 4511.25, 4511.26, 4511.27, 4511.28, 4511.29, 4511.30, 4511.31, 4511.32, 4511.33, 4511.34, 4511.35, 4511.36, 4511.37, 4511.38, 4511.39, 4511.40, 4511.41, 4511.42, 4511.43, 4511.431, 4511.432, 4511.44, 4511.441, 4511.57, 4511.58, 4511.59, 4511.60, 4511.61, 4511.62, 4511.66, 4511.68, 4511.681, and 4511.69 of the Revised Code do not apply to the driver of an emergency vehicle or public safety vehicle if the emergency vehicle or public safety vehicle is responding to an emergency call, is equipped with and displaying at least one flashing, rotating, or oscillating light visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of five hundred feet to the front of the vehicle and if the driver of the vehicle is giving an audible signal by siren, exhaust whistle, or bell. This section does not relieve the driver of an emergency vehicle or public safety vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons and property upon the highway.

Sec. 4511.09.  The department of transportation shall adopt a manual and specifications for a uniform system of traffic control devices, including signs denoting names of streets and highways, for use upon highways any street, highway, bikeway, or private road open to public travel within this state. Such uniform system shall correlate with, and so far as possible conform to, the system approved by the American Association of State Highway Officials federal highway administration.

Sec. 4511.102.  As used in sections 4511.102 to 4511.106 of the Revised Code:

(A) "Tourist-oriented activity" includes any lawful cultural, historical, recreational, educational, or commercial activity a major portion of whose income or visitors are derived during the normal business season from motorists not residing in the immediate area of the activity and attendance at which is no less than two thousand visitors in any consecutive twelve-month period.

(B) "Eligible attraction" means any tourist-oriented activity that meets all of the following criteria:

(1) Is not eligible for inclusion in the business logo sign program established under section 4511.101 of the Revised Code at that intersection;

(2) If currently advertised by signs adjacent to a highway on the interstate system or state system, those signs are consistent with Chapter 5516. of the Revised Code and the "National Highway Beautification Act of 1965," 79 Stat. 1028, 23 U.S.C. 131, and the national standards, criteria, and rules adopted pursuant to that act;

(3) Is within ten miles of the highway for which signing is sought under sections 4511.102 to 4511.105 of the Revised Code;

(4) Meets any additional criteria developed by the director of transportation and adopted by the director as rules in accordance with Chapter 119. of the Revised Code.

(C) "Interstate system" has the same meaning as in section 5516.01 of the Revised Code.

(D) "Commercial activity" means a farm market, winery, bed and breakfast, lodging that is not a franchise or part of a national chain, antiques shop, craft store, or gift store.

Sec. 4511.103.  (A) The director of transportation, in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 109(d) and 315, with the provisions of the federal manual of uniform traffic control devices relating to tourist-oriented directional signs and trailblazer markers, and with Chapter 119. of the Revised Code, shall adopt rules to carry out a program for the placement of tourist-oriented directional signs and trailblazer markers within the rights-of-way of those portions of rural state highways that are not on the interstate system. The rules shall prohibit the placement of tourist-oriented directional signs and trailblazer markers at interchanges on state system expressways and freeways. The rules shall include, but need not be limited to, all of the following:

(1) The form of the application to participate in the program. The form shall include such necessary information as the director requires to ensure that a tourist-oriented activity for which signing is sought is an eligible attraction.

(2) Provisions for covering or otherwise obscuring signs during off-seasons for eligible attractions that operate on a seasonal basis;

(3) A determination as to the circumstances that justify including on a sign the hours of operation of an eligible attraction;

(4) Criteria for use of the signs at at-grade intersections on expressways.

(B) The program established pursuant to division (A) of this section may be operated, maintained, and marketed either by the department of transportation or by any private person with whom the director, in accordance with rules adopted by the director pursuant to Chapter 119. of the Revised Code, contracts for the operation, maintenance, and marketing. The rules shall describe the terms of the contract and shall allow for a reasonable profit to be made by the successful applicant. In awarding the contract, the director shall consider the skill, expertise, prior experience, and other qualifications of each applicant.

(C) All direct and indirect costs of the program shall be fully paid by the eligible attractions that participate in the program. The director shall develop a fee schedule for participation in the program, and shall charge each program participant the appropriate fee. Direct and indirect costs include, but are not limited to, the cost of all of the following:

(1) Capital;

(2) Insurance;

(3) Directional signs, sign blanks, and posts, and the design, engineering, installation, repair, replacement, and removal of directional signs and posts;

(4) Program administration.

(D) Money generated from participating businesses in excess of the direct and indirect costs and any reasonable profit earned by a person awarded a contract under division (B) of this section shall be remitted to the department, which shall deposit all such money into the state treasury to the credit of the highway operating fund created by section 5735.291 of the Revised Code.

(E) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prohibit the director from establishing such a program. If the department operates such a program and does not contract with a private entity to operate the program, all money collected from participating businesses shall be deposited into the state treasury to the credit of the highway operating fund.

Sec. 4511.105.  Tourist-oriented directional signs shall conform to the specifications contained in the federal manual of uniform traffic control devices.

If more than one eligible attraction requires a sign at the same location, multiple signs may be combined on the same panel in accordance with the federal manual of uniform traffic control devices.

Advance signing may be installed in those situations where sight distance, intersection vehicle maneuvers, or other vehicle operating characteristics require advance notice of an eligible attraction in order to reduce vehicle conflicts and improve highway safety.

The design, arrangement, size, and location of tourist-oriented directional signs, including advance signs and trailblazer markers, authorized under sections 4511.102 to 4511.105 of the Revised Code shall conform to the applicable specifications contained in the federal manual of uniform traffic control devices.

Sec. 4511.106.  The legislative authority of a local authority may adopt a resolution establishing a program for the placement of tourist-oriented directional signs and trailblazer markers within the rights-of-way of streets and highways under its jurisdiction. Any program established under this section shall conform to the rules and specifications contained in the program established by the director of transportation pursuant to sections 4511.102 to 4511.105 of the Revised Code and the applicable provisions of the federal manual of uniform traffic control devices. If a local authority establishes a program under this section, the local authority may request guidance from the department of transportation in structuring, implementing, and administering its program, but the local authority is solely responsible for the structure and actual implementation and administration of its program, including, but not limited to, the evaluation and review of applications to participate in the local program and the execution of advertising agreements with eligible attractions.

Sec. 4511.11.  (A) Local authorities in their respective jurisdictions shall place and maintain traffic control devices in accordance with the department of transportation manual and specifications for a uniform system of traffic control devices, adopted under section 4511.09 of the Revised Code, upon highways under their jurisdiction as are necessary to indicate and to carry out sections 4511.01 to 4511.76 and 4511.99 of the Revised Code, local traffic ordinances, or to regulate, warn, or guide traffic.

(B) The director of transportation may require to be removed any traffic control device that does not conform to the manual and specifications for a uniform system of traffic control devices on the extensions of the state highway system within municipal corporations.

(C) No village shall place or maintain any traffic control signal upon an extension of the state highway system within the village without first obtaining the permission of the director. The director may revoke the permission and may require to be removed any traffic control signal that has been erected without the director's permission on an extension of a state highway within a village, or that, if erected under a permit granted by the director, does not conform to the state manual and specifications, or that is not operated in accordance with the terms of the permit.

(D) All traffic control devices erected on a public road, any street, or highway, alley, bikeway, or private road open to public travel shall conform to the state manual and specifications.

(E) No person, firm, or corporation shall sell or offer for sale to local authorities any traffic control device that does not conform to the state manual and specifications, except by permission of the director.

(F) No local authority shall purchase or manufacture any traffic control device that does not conform to the state manual and specifications, except by permission of the director.

(G) Whoever violates division (E) of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the third degree.

Sec. 4511.13.  Whenever Highway traffic is controlled by traffic control signals exhibiting different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors green, red, and yellow shall be used, except signal indications for special pedestrian signals carrying words or symbols, and said lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles, streetcars, and trackless trolleys, and to pedestrians as follows shall have the following meanings:

(A) Green Steady green signal indication:

(1)(a) Vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys facing a circular green signal may indication are permitted to proceed straight through or turn right or left unless a sign at such place prohibits either such turn. But vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys, including vehicles, streetcars, and trackless trolleys turning right or left, shall yield the right-of-way to other or make a u-turn movement except as such movement is modified by a lane-use sign, turn prohibition sign, lane marking, roadway design, separate turn signal indication, or other traffic control device. Such vehicular traffic, including vehicles turning right or left or making a u-turn movement, shall yield the right-of-way to both of the following:

(i) Pedestrians lawfully within an associated crosswalk;

(ii) Other vehicles, streetcars, trackless trolleys, and pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk at the time such signal is exhibited.

(b) In addition, vehicular traffic turning left or making a u-turn movement to the left shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicles approaching from the opposite direction so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when such turning vehicle is moving across or within the intersection.

(2) Vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys facing a green arrow signal, shown indication, displayed alone or in combination with another signal indication, may are permitted to cautiously enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by such arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown displayed at the same time. Such vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys, including vehicles turning right or left or making a u-turn movement, shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians both of the following:

(a) Pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent associated crosswalk and to other;

(b) Other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

(3)(a) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control pedestrian signal indication, as provided in section 4511.14 of the Revised Code, pedestrians facing any a circular green signal, except when the sole green signal is a turn arrow, may indication are permitted to proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked associated crosswalk. The pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully within the intersection or so close as to create an immediate hazard at the time that the green signal indication is first displayed.

(b) Pedestrians facing a green arrow signal indication, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian signal indication or other traffic control device, shall not cross the roadway.

(B) Steady yellow signal indication:

(1) Vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal indication are thereby warned that the related green movement or the related flashing arrow movement is being terminated or that a steady red signal indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter when vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys shall not enter the intersection. The provisions governing vehicular operation under the movement being terminated shall continue to apply while the steady circular yellow signal indication is displayed.

(2) Vehicular traffic facing a steady yellow arrow signal indication is thereby warned that the related green arrow movement or the related flashing arrow movement is being terminated. The provisions governing vehicular operation under the movement being terminated shall continue to apply while the steady yellow arrow signal indication is displayed.

(3) Pedestrians facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal indication, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control pedestrian signal indication as provided in section 4511.14 of the Revised Code or other traffic control device, are thereby advised that there is insufficient time to cross the roadway before a red indication is shown and no pedestrian shall then not start to cross the roadway.

(C) Steady red signal indication:

(1)(a) Vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys facing a steady circular red signal alone indication, unless entering the intersection to make another movement permitted by another signal indication, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line,; but if none there is no stop line, traffic shall stop before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection,; or if none there is no crosswalk, then before entering the intersection; and shall remain standing stopped until an a signal indication to proceed is shown displayed except as provided in divisions (C)(1), (2), and (3) of this section.

(b) Except when a traffic control device is in place prohibiting a turn on red or a steady red arrow signal indication is displayed, vehicular traffic facing a steady circular red signal indication is permitted to enter the intersection to turn right, or to turn left from a one-way street, after stopping. The right to proceed with the turn shall be subject to the provisions that are applicable after making a stop at a stop sign.

(2) Unless a sign is in place prohibiting a right turn as provided in division (C)(5) of this section, vehicular (a) Vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys facing a steady red arrow signal may cautiously indication shall not enter the intersection to make a right turn after stopping as required by division (C)(1) of this section. Such vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection the movement indicated by the arrow and, unless entering the intersection to make another movement permitted by another signal indication, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line; but if there is no stop line, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection; or if there is no crosswalk, then before entering the intersection; and shall remain stopped until a signal indication or other traffic control device permitting the movement indicated by such red arrow is displayed.

(b) When a traffic control device is in place permitting a turn on a steady red arrow signal indication, vehicular traffic facing a steady red arrow indication is permitted to enter the intersection to make the movement indicated by the arrow signal indication, after stopping. The right to proceed with the turn shall be limited to the direction indicated by the arrow and shall be subject to the provisions that are applicable after making a stop at a stop sign.

(3) Unless a sign is in place prohibiting a left turn as provided in division (C)(5) of this section, vehicular traffic, streetcars, and trackless trolleys facing a steady red signal on a one-way street that intersects another one-way street on which traffic moves to the left may cautiously enter the intersection to make a left turn into the one-way street after stopping as required by division (C)(1) of this section, and yielding the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

(4) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control pedestrian signal indication as provided in section 4511.14 of the Revised Code or other traffic control device, pedestrians facing a steady circular red or steady red arrow signal alone indication shall not enter the roadway.

(5)(4) Local authorities may by ordinance, or the director of transportation on state highways may, may prohibit a right or a left turn against a steady red signal at any intersection, which shall be effective when signs giving notice thereof are posted at the intersection.

(D) A flashing green signal indication has no meaning and shall not be used.

(E) Flashing yellow signal indication:

(1)(a) Vehicular traffic, on an approach to an intersection, facing a flashing circular yellow signal indication, is permitted to cautiously enter the intersection to proceed straight through or turn right or left or make a u-turn movement except as such movement is modified by lane-use signs, turn prohibition signs, lane markings, roadway design, separate turn signal indications, or other traffic control devices. Such vehicular traffic, including vehicles turning right or left or making a u-turn movement, shall yield the right-of-way to both of the following:

(i) Pedestrians lawfully within an associated crosswalk;

(ii) Other vehicles lawfully within the intersection.

(b) In addition, vehicular traffic turning left or making a u-turn to the left shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicles approaching from the opposite direction so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when such turning vehicle is moving across or within the intersection.

(2)(a) Vehicular traffic, on an approach to an intersection, facing a flashing yellow arrow signal indication, displayed alone or in combination with another signal indication, is permitted to cautiously enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by such arrow, or other such movement as is permitted by other signal indications displayed at the same time. Such vehicular traffic, including vehicles turning right or left or making a u-turn, shall yield the right-of-way to both of the following:

(i) Pedestrians lawfully within an associated crosswalk;

(ii) Other vehicles lawfully within the intersection.

(b) In addition, vehicular traffic turning left or making a u-turn to the left shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicles approaching from the opposite direction so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when such turning vehicle is moving across or within the intersection.

(3) Pedestrians facing any flashing yellow signal indication at an intersection, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian signal indication or other traffic control device, are permitted to proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked associated crosswalk. Pedestrians shall yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully within the intersection at the time that the flashing yellow signal indication is first displayed.

(4) When a flashing circular yellow signal indication is displayed as a beacon to supplement another traffic control device, road users are notified that there is a need to pay additional attention to the message contained thereon or that the regulatory or warning requirements of the other traffic control device, which might not be applicable at all times, are currently applicable.

(F) Flashing red signal indication:

(1) Vehicular traffic, on an approach to an intersection, facing a flashing circular red signal indication, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line; but if there is no stop line, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection; or if there is no crosswalk, at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the intersection. The right to proceed shall be subject to the provisions that are applicable after making a stop at a stop sign.

(2) Pedestrians facing any flashing red signal indication at an intersection, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian signal indication or other traffic control device, are permitted to proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked associated crosswalk. Pedestrians shall yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully within the intersection at the time that the flashing red signal indication is first displayed.

(3) When a flashing circular red signal indication is displayed as a beacon to supplement another traffic control device, road users are notified that there is a need to pay additional attention to the message contained thereon or that the regulatory requirements of the other traffic control device, which might not be applicable at all times, are currently applicable. Use of this signal indication shall be limited to supplementing stop, do not enter, or wrong way signs, and to applications where compliance with the supplemented traffic control device requires a stop at a designated point.

(G) In the event an official traffic-control signal is erected and maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of this section shall be applicable except as to those provisions which by their nature can have no application. Any stop required shall be made at a sign or marking on the pavement indicating where the stop shall be made, but in the absence of any such sign or marking the stop shall be made at the signal.

(H) This section does not apply at railroad grade crossings. Conduct of drivers of vehicles, trackless trolleys, and streetcars approaching railroad grade crossings shall be governed by sections 4511.61 and 4511.62 of the Revised Code.

Sec. 4511.131.  When The meanings of lane-use control signals signal indications are placed over individual lanes of a street or highway, said signals shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles and trackless trolleys as follows:

(A) A steady downward green arrow:

Vehicular traffic and trackless trolleys may travel A road user is permitted to drive in any the lane over which a green the arrow signal indication is shown located.

(B) A steady yellow "X":

Vehicular traffic and trackless trolleys are warned A road user is to prepare to vacate in a safe manner any the lane over which such the signal indication is shown to avoid occupying that located because a lane when control change is being made to a steady red "X" signal is shown indication.

(C) A flashing yellow "X" steady white two-way left-turn arrow:

Vehicular traffic and trackless trolleys may A road user is permitted to use with proper caution any a lane over which such the signal indication is shown for only the purpose of making located for a left turn, but not for through travel, with the understanding that common use of the lane by oncoming road users for left turns also is permitted.

(D) A steady white one-way left-turn arrow:

A road user is permitted to use a lane over which the signal indication is located for a left turn, without opposing turns in the same lane, but not for through travel.

(E) A steady red "X". :

Vehicular traffic and trackless trolleys shall A road user is not enter or travel in any permitted to use the lane over which such the signal indication is shown located and that this signal indication shall modify accordingly the meaning of other traffic controls present.

Sec. 4511.14.  Whenever special pedestrian control signals exhibiting the words "walk" or "don't walk," or the symbol of a walking person or an upraised palm are in place, such signals shall indicate the following instructions:

(A) "Walk" or the symbol of a A steady walking person: Pedestrians signal indication, which symbolizes "walk," means that a pedestrian facing such the signal may proceed across indication is permitted to start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal and shall be given the right of way by operators of all indication, possibly in conflict with turning vehicles, streetcars, and trackless trolleys. The pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully within the intersection at the time that the walking person signal indication is first shown.

(B) "Don't walk" or the symbol of an A flashing upraised palm: No hand signal indication, which symbolizes "don't walk," means that a pedestrian shall not start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal indication, but that any pedestrian who has already started to cross on a steady walking person signal indication shall proceed to the far side of the traveled way of the street or highway, unless otherwise directed by a traffic control device to proceed only to the median of a divided highway or only to some other island or pedestrian refuge area.

(C) A steady upraised hand signal indication means that a pedestrian shall not enter the roadway in the direction of the signal indication.

(C) (D) Nothing in this section shall be construed to invalidate the continued use of pedestrian control signals utilitizing utilizing the word "wait" if those signals were installed prior to the effective date of this act March 28, 1985.

(E) A flashing walking person signal indication has no meaning and shall not be used.

Sec. 4511.37.  (A) Except as provided in section 4511.13 and division (B) of this section, no vehicle shall be turned so as to proceed in the opposite direction upon any curve, or upon the approach to or near the crest of a grade, if the vehicle cannot be seen within five hundred feet by the driver of any other vehicle approaching from either direction.

(B) The driver of an emergency vehicle or public safety vehicle, when responding to an emergency call, may turn the vehicle so as to proceed in the opposite direction. This division applies only when the emergency vehicle or public safety vehicle is responding to an emergency call, is equipped with and displaying at least one flashing, rotating, or oscillating light visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of five hundred feet to the front of the vehicle, and when the driver of the vehicle is giving an audible signal by siren, exhaust whistle, or bell. This division does not relieve the driver of an emergency vehicle or public safety vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons and property upon the highway.

(C) Except as otherwise provided in this division, whoever violates this section is guilty of a minor misdemeanor. If, within one year of the offense, the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to one predicate motor vehicle or traffic offense, whoever violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the fourth degree. If, within one year of the offense, the offender previously has been convicted of two or more predicate motor vehicle or traffic offenses, whoever violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the third degree.

Sec. 4511.69.  (A) Every vehicle stopped or parked upon a roadway where there is an adjacent curb shall be stopped or parked with the right-hand wheels of the vehicle parallel with and not more than twelve inches from the right-hand curb, unless it is impossible to approach so close to the curb; in such case the stop shall be made as close to the curb as possible and only for the time necessary to discharge and receive passengers or to load or unload merchandise. Local authorities by ordinance may permit angle parking on any roadway under their jurisdiction, except that angle parking shall not be permitted on a state route within a municipal corporation unless an unoccupied roadway width of not less than twenty-five feet is available for free-moving traffic.

(B) Local authorities by ordinance may permit parking of vehicles with the left-hand wheels adjacent to and within twelve inches of the left-hand curb of a one-way roadway.

(C)(1) Except as provided in division (C)(2) of this section, no vehicle or trackless trolley shall be stopped or parked on a road or highway with the vehicle or trackless trolley facing in a direction other than the direction of travel on that side of the road or highway.

(2) The operator of a motorcycle may back the motorcycle into an angled parking space so that when the motorcycle is parked it is facing in a direction other than the direction of travel on the side of the road or highway.

(D) Notwithstanding any statute or any rule, resolution, or ordinance adopted by any local authority, air compressors, tractors, trucks, and other equipment, while being used in the construction, reconstruction, installation, repair, or removal of facilities near, on, over, or under a street or highway, may stop, stand, or park where necessary in order to perform such work, provided a flagperson is on duty or warning signs or lights are displayed as may be prescribed by the director of transportation.

(E) Special parking locations and privileges for persons with disabilities that limit or impair the ability to walk, also known as handicapped parking spaces or disability parking spaces, shall be provided and designated by all political subdivisions and by the state and all agencies and instrumentalities thereof at all offices and facilities, where parking is provided, whether owned, rented, or leased, and at all publicly owned parking garages. The locations shall be designated through the posting of an elevated sign, whether permanently affixed or movable, imprinted with the international symbol of access and shall be reasonably close to exits, entrances, elevators, and ramps. All elevated signs posted in accordance with this division and division (C) of section 3781.111 of the Revised Code shall be mounted on a fixed or movable post, and the distance from the ground to the top bottom edge of the sign shall measure not less than five feet. If a new sign or a replacement sign designating a special parking location is posted on or after October 14, 1999, there also shall be affixed upon the surface of that sign or affixed next to the designating sign a notice that states the fine applicable for the offense of parking a motor vehicle in the special designated parking location if the motor vehicle is not legally entitled to be parked in that location.

(F)(1) No person shall stop, stand, or park any motor vehicle at special parking locations provided under division (E) of this section or at special clearly marked parking locations provided in or on privately owned parking lots, parking garages, or other parking areas and designated in accordance with that division, unless one of the following applies:

(a) The motor vehicle is being operated by or for the transport of a person with a disability that limits or impairs the ability to walk and is displaying a valid removable windshield placard or special license plates;

(b) The motor vehicle is being operated by or for the transport of a handicapped person and is displaying a parking card or special handicapped license plates.

(2) Any motor vehicle that is parked in a special marked parking location in violation of division (F)(1)(a) or (b) of this section may be towed or otherwise removed from the parking location by the law enforcement agency of the political subdivision in which the parking location is located. A motor vehicle that is so towed or removed shall not be released to its owner until the owner presents proof of ownership of the motor vehicle and pays all towing and storage fees normally imposed by that political subdivision for towing and storing motor vehicles. If the motor vehicle is a leased vehicle, it shall not be released to the lessee until the lessee presents proof that that person is the lessee of the motor vehicle and pays all towing and storage fees normally imposed by that political subdivision for towing and storing motor vehicles.

(3) If a person is charged with a violation of division (F)(1)(a) or (b) of this section, it is an affirmative defense to the charge that the person suffered an injury not more than seventy-two hours prior to the time the person was issued the ticket or citation and that, because of the injury, the person meets at least one of the criteria contained in division (A)(1) of section 4503.44 of the Revised Code.

(G) When a motor vehicle is being operated by or for the transport of a person with a disability that limits or impairs the ability to walk and is displaying a removable windshield placard or a temporary removable windshield placard or special license plates, or when a motor vehicle is being operated by or for the transport of a handicapped person and is displaying a parking card or special handicapped license plates, the motor vehicle is permitted to park for a period of two hours in excess of the legal parking period permitted by local authorities, except where local ordinances or police rules provide otherwise or where the vehicle is parked in such a manner as to be clearly a traffic hazard.

(H) No owner of an office, facility, or parking garage where special parking locations are required to be designated in accordance with division (E) of this section shall fail to properly mark the special parking locations in accordance with that division or fail to maintain the markings of the special locations, including the erection and maintenance of the fixed or movable signs.

(I) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a person or organization to apply for a removable windshield placard or special license plates if the parking card or special license plates issued to the person or organization under prior law have not expired or been surrendered or revoked.

(J)(1) Whoever violates division (A) or (C) of this section is guilty of a minor misdemeanor.

(2)(a) Whoever violates division (F)(1)(a) or (b) of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished as provided in division (J)(2)(a) and (b) of this section. Except as otherwise provided in division (J)(2)(a) of this section, an offender who violates division (F)(1)(a) or (b) of this section shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty nor more than five hundred dollars. An offender who violates division (F)(1)(a) or (b) of this section shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars if the offender, prior to sentencing, proves either of the following to the satisfaction of the court:

(i) At the time of the violation of division (F)(1)(a) of this section, the offender or the person for whose transport the motor vehicle was being operated had been issued a removable windshield placard that then was valid or special license plates that then were valid but the offender or the person neglected to display the placard or license plates as described in division (F)(1)(a) of this section.

(ii) At the time of the violation of division (F)(1)(b) of this section, the offender or the person for whose transport the motor vehicle was being operated had been issued a parking card that then was valid or special handicapped license plates that then were valid but the offender or the person neglected to display the card or license plates as described in division (F)(1)(b) of this section.

(b) In no case shall an offender who violates division (F)(1)(a) or (b) of this section be sentenced to any term of imprisonment.

An arrest or conviction for a violation of division (F)(1)(a) or (b) of this section does not constitute a criminal record and need not be reported by the person so arrested or convicted in response to any inquiries contained in any application for employment, license, or other right or privilege, or made in connection with the person's appearance as a witness.

The clerk of the court shall pay every fine collected under division (J)(2) of this section to the political subdivision in which the violation occurred. Except as provided in division (J)(2) of this section, the political subdivision shall use the fine moneys it receives under division (J)(2) of this section to pay the expenses it incurs in complying with the signage and notice requirements contained in division (E) of this section. The political subdivision may use up to fifty per cent of each fine it receives under division (J)(2) of this section to pay the costs of educational, advocacy, support, and assistive technology programs for persons with disabilities, and for public improvements within the political subdivision that benefit or assist persons with disabilities, if governmental agencies or nonprofit organizations offer the programs.

(3) Whoever violates division (H) of this section shall be punished as follows:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (J)(3) of this section, the offender shall be issued a warning.

(b) If the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a violation of division (H) of this section or of a municipal ordinance that is substantially similar to that division, the offender shall not be issued a warning but shall be fined not more than twenty-five dollars for each parking location that is not properly marked or whose markings are not properly maintained.

(K) As used in this section:

(1) "Handicapped person" means any person who has lost the use of one or both legs or one or both arms, who is blind, deaf, or so severely handicapped as to be unable to move without the aid of crutches or a wheelchair, or whose mobility is restricted by a permanent cardiovascular, pulmonary, or other handicapping condition.

(2) "Person with a disability that limits or impairs the ability to walk" has the same meaning as in section 4503.44 of the Revised Code.

(3) "Special license plates" and "removable windshield placard" mean any license plates or removable windshield placard or temporary removable windshield placard issued under section 4503.41 or 4503.44 of the Revised Code, and also mean any substantially similar license plates or removable windshield placard or temporary removable windshield placard issued by a state, district, country, or sovereignty.

Sec. 4955.33.  At all points where its railroad crosses a public road at a common grade, each company shall erect crossbuck signing at positions at each such crossing that are in accordance with the department of transportation manual for uniform traffic control devices, adopted under section 4511.09 of the Revised Code, to give notice of the proximity of the railroad and warn persons to be on the lookout for the locomotive. Any such signing that has been or is erected in accordance with this section may lawfully be continued in use until it is replaced. A company that neglects or refuses to comply with this section is liable in damages for all injuries that occur to persons or property from such neglect or refusal.

Each crossbuck sign also shall be accompanied by an additional sign consisting of three panels, with the middle panel bearing the word "yield" spelled vertically. The front and rear faces of the crossbuck sign and of the three panels of the additional sign shall be coated or treated with a reflective material, and if the crossbuck sign and additional sign are mounted on a vertical girder or post, the girder or post also shall be coated or treated with a reflective material. The director, after consultation with those persons knowledgeable in the area of railroad-highway grade crossing safety as he may select, shall determine specifications for the crossbuck sign, additional sign, girder, or post, and for the reflectiveness of the reflective material described in this section.

The director of transportation may erect experimental signs at certain crossings in lieu of the above required signing, for the purpose of conducting research for the development of better signing systems. The erection of such a sign by the director at a particular crossing relieves the railroad company from any liability in damages that might otherwise arise under this section at the crossing.

With the prior approval of the director, a railroad company or local authority may erect experimental signs and warning devices at a crossing in lieu of the above required signing, for the purpose of conducting research for the development of better warning signing systems and devices. Such signs and warning devices may be erected on either an interim or permanent basis, as determined by the director, and the erection in accordance with this section of such signs and warning devices at a particular crossing relieves the railroad company or local authority from any liability in damages that might otherwise arise under this section at the crossing.

SECTION 2.  That existing sections 3781.111, 4510.31, 4511.01, 4511.041, 4511.09, 4511.102, 4511.103, 4511.105, 4511.106, 4511.11, 4511.13, 4511.131, 4511.14, 4511.37, 4511.69, and 4955.33 and section 4511.15 of the Revised Code are hereby repealed.

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